How Much Research and Analysis Are Sufficient?

Seth Klarman, an investor and head of The Baupost Group, shares his take on a question that comes up in all sorts of situations. This is a brief excerpt from his book Margin of Safety: Risk-Averse Value Investing Strategies for the Thoughtful Investor which is, unfortunately, out of print and very expensive to acquire your own copy of.

Some investors insist on trying to obtain perfect knowledge about their impending investments, researching companies until they think they know everything there is to know about them. They study the industry and the competition, contact former employees, industry consultants, and analysts, and become personally acquainted with top management. They analyze financial statements for the past decade and stock price trends for even longer. This diligence is admirable, but it has two shortcomings. First, no matter how much research is performed, some information always remains elusive; investors have to learn to live with less than complete information. Second, even if an investor could know all the facts about an investment, he or she would not necessarily profit.
This is not to say that fundamental analysis is not useful. It certainly is. But information generally follows the well-known 80/20 rule: the first 80 percent of the available information is gathered in the first 20 percent of the time spent. The value of in-depth fundamental analysis is subject to diminishing marginal returns.


Most investors strive fruitlessly for certainty and precision, avoiding situations in which information is difficult to obtain. Yet high uncertainty is frequently accompanied by low prices. By the time the uncertainty is resolved, prices are likely to have risen. Investors frequently benefit from making investment decisions with less than perfect knowledge and are well rewarded for bearing the risk of uncertainty. The time other investors spend delving into the last unanswered detail may cost them the chance to buy in at prices so low that they offer a margin of safety despite the incomplete information.

While he’s looking at this question from an investor’s perspective, even if you’re not an investor, the piece is thought provoking. especially to anyone involved in knowledge work or who has to make decisions (and who isn’t?)

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